WEIGHT LOSS MODALITIES
“Taking a wholistic approach to weight loss, we offer various modalities to provide the treatment(s) and support you need.”..Naomi Paschall, M.D.
Why is it important to eat a healthy diet?
Your body needs a balanced supply of nutrients to grow, replace worn-out tissue, and provide energy. Not getting enough of these important nutrients can affect your health. However, eating too much food and excess calories can lead to health problems.
Obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer, including breast cancer, colon cancer, and cancer of the uterus. Obesity also is associated with infertility.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s web site "MyPlate" offers a free diet-tracking program called "SuperTracker" that takes into account your age, sex, height, weight, and physical activity and gives the amount of food you should have each day from each of the following five food groups:
2. Fruits Vegetables
3. Protein foods
4. Dairy foods
A balanced diet should include a combination of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
Protein provides the nutrients your body needs to grow and repair muscles and other tissues.
Protein is found in the following foods:
- Beef, pork, and fish
- Eggs and dairy products
- Beans and peas
- Nuts and seeds
For vegetarians, protein can be found in nuts, seeds, nut butters, and soy products such as tempeh and tofu. Vegetarians who include dairy products in their diets also can get needed protein from milk and eggs.
Some types of fats, called omega-3 fatty acids, play an important role in brain development. Fats also are essential to the function of the immune system, aid in blood clotting, and help your body use vitamins A, D, E, and K.
Some have health benefits, while others do not. You should be aware of the different types of fat in your diet:
- Saturated fats come mainly from meat and dairy products. They tend to be solid when chilled.
- Unsaturated fats tend to be liquid and come mostly from plants and vegetables.
- Trans fats are unsaturated fats that have been chemically processed to be solid at room temperature.
Most of the fat that you eat should be in the form of unsaturated fat from plant oils.
Too much saturated fat and trans fat in your diet can lead to abnormal cholesterol levels, which can increase your risk of cardiovascular disease. Excess body fat can lead to several health problems, including diabetes, heart disease, and joint problems.
You also can decrease your fat intake by changing the way you prepare foods:
- Broil, bake, poach, or steam your food instead of frying or sauteing it.
- Skim liquid fat from soups.
- Trim all fat from meats.
- Remove skin from poultry.
All carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, the body’s main fuel that powers all of its activities.
There are two types of carbohydrates: simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates.
Simple carbohydrates are found in naturally sweet foods like fruits and also can be added to foods in the form of table sugar, honey, and syrup. They provide a quick energy boost because they are digested and absorbed rapidly.
Simple carbohydrates often are high in calories. It is best to avoid sugary drinks and foods with added sugar.
Complex carbohydrates are found in bread, rice, pasta, some fruits, and starchy vegetables such as potatoes and corn. Complex carbohydrates also include dietary fiber. Complex carbohydrates provide longer-lasting energy than simple carbohydrates because it takes your body longer to process them.
Dietary fiber is found in plant foods. It is the part of the plant that your body cannot digest. Fiber passes relatively unchanged through your digestive system. It can help prevent constipation by adding bulk to the stool, making it easier to pass. Fiber also helps maintain a stable blood glucose level because it passes slowly through the digestive tract. Eating low-glycemic foods can help you feel full and reduce the feeling of hunger, which can aid in weight loss. Low-glycemic foods also may help reduce cholesterol levels and prevent diabetes.
The following foods are good sources of dietary fiber:
- Whole-grain products
Calcium is needed for healthy bones.
Skim milk and other dairy foods, such as yogurt and cheese, are high in calcium. Non-dairy sources of calcium include the following:
- Dark greens
- Soybeans and some soy products
- Certain canned fish and seafood
- Cereals and juices with added calcium
Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium.
Good sources are milk fortified with vitamin D and fish that have a lot of unsaturated fat, such as salmon. Exposure to sunlight also converts a chemical in the skin to vitamin D.
Iron is needed to make new red blood cells. The most common form of anemia is caused by a lack of iron. Anemia may make you feel tired and weak.
One serving of most breakfast cereals with added iron should provide enough of this daily requirement. Other foods that are good sources of iron include the following:
- Beans (soybeans, white beans, lentils, kidney beans, chick peas)
- Clams and oysters
- Meats (beef, duck, lamb)
- Organ meats (liver, giblets)
It helps to eat foods rich in vitamin C, like oranges and tomatoes, at the same meal with an iron-rich food. Vitamin C helps your body use iron better.
Folic acid is a B vitamin that also is known as folate. Folic acid improves your overall health and also helps reduce the risk of having a baby with a neural tube defect.
Folic acid is added to certain foods (breads, cereal, pasta, rice, and flour) and is found in leafy dark-green vegetables, citrus fruits, and beans. It may be hard to get all of the folic acid you need from food sources alone. For this reason, it is recommended that all women of childbearing age take a daily supplement containing 400 micrograms of folic acid.
Sodium is linked to high blood pressure. Sodium should be used in small amounts—about 2,300 mg, or about one teaspoon of table salt, a day. If you are older than 50 years, African American, or have diabetes, high blood pressure, or kidney disease, you should have no more than 1,500 mg a day.
Anemia: Abnormally low levels of blood or red blood cells in the bloodstream. Most cases are caused by iron deficiency, or lack of iron.
Calories: Units of heat used to express the fuel or energy value of food.
Cardiovascular Disease: Disease of the heart and blood vessels.
Cholesterol: A natural substance that serves as a building block for cells and hormones and helps to carry fat through the blood vessels for use or storage in other parts of the body.
Diabetes: A condition in which the levels of sugar in the blood are too high.
Glucose: A sugar that is present in the blood and is the body’s main source of fuel.
Immune System: The body’s natural defense system against foreign substances and invading organisms, such as bacteria that cause disease.
Neural Tube Defect: A birth defect that results from incomplete development of the brain, spinal cord, or their coverings.
Nutrients: Nourishing substances supplied through food, such as vitamins and minerals.
Obesity: A condition characterized by excessive body fat.
Uterus: A muscular organ located in the female pelvis that contains and nourishes the developing fetus during pregnancy.
What are the benefits of exercise?
Regular exercise can provide the following health benefits:
- Reduce the risk of heart disease by strengthening your heart, lowering cholesterol, and decreasing blood pressure
- Decrease the risk of diabetes and certain types of cancer
- Increase your flexibility
- Give you more energy
- Strengthen your muscles
- Help control your weight
- Build and maintain strong bones
- Relieve stress
- Help you sleep better
- May help with depression and anxiety
There are two types of exercises—cardiovascular (or aerobic) exercise and strength training. A mix of both is best.
In addition to these exercises, every workout should include exercises to promote flexibility. This means careful stretching of the muscles and joints. Some exercise programs, such as Pilates and yoga, are specifically designed to improve flexibility.
All strength training and some cardiovascular exercise is weight bearing. This means that, during exercise, your body is supporting your weight against gravity. This promotes bone density and protects against osteoporosis.
Cardiovascular exercise causes your heart and lungs to work harder to build fitness. Improving the fitness of your heart and lungs increases your body’s ability to use oxygen. Also, it burns calories, which helps you lose weight.
Cardiovascular exercise also helps build endurance. The more endurance you have, the longer you can exercise.
Examples of cardiovascular exercise are:
- Cross-country skiing
- Aerobic activities
Strength training, also called resistance training, builds muscle and slows bone loss. Exerting force on your muscles and bones helps to strengthen them. As you build muscle, your body will become more toned. The more muscle you have, the better your body burns calories. Examples of strength training include:
- Lifting weights
- Using weight machines
- Using resistance bands
- Leg lifts
- To decrease the risk of chronic disease—exercise at least 30 minutes on most days of the week.
- To maintain weight—exercise about 60 minutes on most days of the week. You should not eat more calories than you burn.
- To lose weight—exercise at least 60–90 minutes on most days of the week. You will likely have to reduce the number of calories you eat.
If you are in good health, you do not have to see your health care provider before you begin a moderate exercise program. However, some people may need extra care. You should talk with your health care provider before starting an exercise program if
- you are older than 50 years and plan a vigorous program
- you have a chronic medical condition or are at increased risk of a medical condition
- you are very overweight (obese)
- you are pregnant
If it has been some time since you have exercised regularly, you should start exercising slowly and gradually. You can spread exercise throughout the day. Plan your exercise program to suit your interests and lifestyle.
Warm-up exercises prepare your heart and muscles for more intense activity and prevent injuries. Cooling down helps your body return to normal after exercise.
Start the exercise session with a warm-up period for 5–10 minutes. This is light activity, such as slow walking or stationary cycling at a low resistance.
After exercising, cool down by slowly reducing your activity. This allows your heart rate to return to near-normal levels. Cooling down for 5–10 minutes and stretching will increase flexibility and prevent muscle soreness.
The following signs indicate that you may be working too hard:
- Excessive muscle soreness or pain
- Problems breathing
- Feeling very tired for the whole workout
- Irregular heartbeat
If any of these signs occur, you should stop working out. The next time you exercise, do not work quite so hard. If you still have problems, see your health care provider.
Women who routinely exercise too much may get injuries because of repeated stress on their muscles and bones. These injuries include stress fractures, shin splints (which cause pain at the lower front part of the leg), and knee injuries. Exercises that can cause stress injuries include high–impact aerobics and running.
One way to avoid injury is to rest on some days or alternate between vigorous and lighter activity. Another way is to cross-train, which means doing different activities, such as tennis and swimming. Water-based activities, such as swimming or water aerobics, are low–impact exercises that are ideal for older women. Water aerobics, however, is not a weight-bearing exercise and will not help prevent osteoporosis.
Calorie: A unit of heat used to express the fuel or energy value of food.
Cardiovascular Exercise: Exercise designed to promote a healthy heart and blood vessels.
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